Cropping pattern The yearly sequence and spatial arrangement of crops and fallow on a given area. Cropping system The cropping pattern used on a farm and its interactions with farm resources, other farm enterprises, and available technology which determine their makeup. Mixed farming Cropping pattern which involve the raising of crops, animals and or trees.
Ratooning One of the important methods of intensive cropping, allowing the stubbles of the original crop to strike again after harvesting and to raise another crop. Live mulch system Live mulch crop production involves planting a food crop directly into a living cover of an established cover crop without tillage or the destruction of the fallow vegetation. Mixed cropping Growing of two or more crops simultaneously and intermingled without row arrangements, where there is significant amount of intercrop competition.
Intercropping Growing of two or more crops simultaneously in alternate rows or otherwise in the same area, where there is significant amount of inter crop competition. Advantages of intercropping are a greater stability of yield over different seasons, b better use of growth resources, c better control of weeds, pests and diseases, d one crop provides physical support to the other crop, e one crop provides shelter to the other crop, f erosion control through providing continuous leaf cover over the ground surface, and g it is the small farmers of limited means who is most likely to benefit.
Thereare some disadvantages as well,as for eg. Multiple cropping is defined as the growing of more than one crop on the same land in one year. There are some other terms related to multiple cropping are the following.Bee house canada
Sole cropping -One crop variety grown alone in pure stands at normal density. Also known as solid planting. Monoculture -The repetitive growing of the same sole crop on the same land. Crop rotation -The repetitive cultivation of an ordered succession of crops or crops and fallow on the same land. Sitemap Contact Us Feedback. Farming Practices.After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play. Get the plugin now. Toggle navigation. Help Preferences Sign up Log in.
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Title: Crops and Cropping Systems in India. Tags: cropping crops india systems vi1. Latest Highest Rated. Not only determined by atmospheric environment and soil, but modifications made by the farmer management, crop choice, inputs, social and economic issues etc. Forestry systems Slash and burn Agroforestry alley cropping, multi-story cropping, kitchen gardens 11 Slash Burn 12 Definitions Agro-climatic zone.
A land area with a specific climate usually based on rainfall and temperature that determines land use Agro-ecological zone. Dry season less 90 days. Tropical rainforest and semi-deciduous forests. All year cropping. Semi-arid protracted dry season months. Drier savanna vegetation. Deficient N and P. Bollgard crop of helped farmers to earn Rs.
Soil or fertility management organic versus inorganic, efficiency, sustainability etc. Crops and crop issues conservation germplasm, markets, subsistence, traditional crops etc. Climate issues global warming, rainfed vs irrigated systems Cropping systems subsistence vs commercial diversity vs monocropping intercropping Animal component of farming systems, multiple uses Agroforestry slash and burn biodiversity.
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We'll even convert your presentations and slide shows into the universal Flash format with all their original multimedia glory, including animation, 2D and 3D transition effects, embedded music or other audio, or even video embedded in slides.Cropping system is defined as the kind and sequence of crops grown on a given area of land over a period of time. It may be a regular rotation of different crops in which the crops follow definite appearance oil the land or it may consist of only crop grown year after year on the same order of area.
Image Courtesy : agex. Other cropping systems may include different crops but lack definite or planned order in which crops follow one another or growing of 2 or several crops, mixed together.
However, cropping system in a broad sense also refers to the principles and practices of cropping and interaction with principles and practices of cropping and interaction with farm resources, environment, regional or national needs and production strategies. But for this review, the discussion is confined to prevalent multiple cropping systems of the country.
Cropping-system approach favour wide ranging issues related to cropping of the country. Cropping system approach favour wide ranging issues related to cropping activity, available resources and micro-environmental farm level in holistic manner.
The biological efficiency of a crop or cropping system is measured in terms of yield per unit area over a specified period of time. The yield may be dry-matter yield, biological yield in field crops sum of yields of main product, e. It is desirable to adjudge the production efficiency of cropping systems by their capacity to produce dry matter per unit area per unit item which is basically determined by genetic makeup of the crop lands.
HT cropping system with high potential productivity May concept is of little significance to agriculturists or crop producers. Preference of rice-wheat to maize-maize-wheat, sorghum- sorghum-wheat and pearl-millet-wheat is a glaring example. Thus, biologically efficient cropping systems may not be necessarily eco-friendly and economic but they certainly more productive. In bio-energetic terms crop production may be viewed as conversions of visible spectrum of total electromagnetic radiation into chemical energy through the photosynthetic apparatus of cellular level to ecosphere are to be considered.
Thus biological efficiencies of cropping systems are governed by and dependent on several factors, most decisive being the type of crops, crop combination, and use, nutrient and water management and agro-climate.
In simple terms, land-use efficiency refers to the utilization of land in temporal dimension of cropping activity. The most efficiently used land is one which does not remain at all in a given unit of time, say a year. If the land is occupied for some productive purposes for every single day in a year it can be stated that it was used in the most efficient way, Land-utilization:.
Because of increasing pressure on land uses for agricultural as well as non-agricultural purposes due to unabated population growth in our country, intensive land use for crop cultivation has become inevitable. Multiple cropping, using short-duration crop cultivars and better management, is a common way of increasing LUE. Their land-use efficiency was Studies clearly indicated that LUE can be enhanced by choosing intensive cropping system, although for wide acceptability of any cropping system, although for wide acceptability of any cropping system LUE needs to be linked with other important parametres like productivity and profitability.
In multi-locational experiments under Cropping Systems Research promising cropping systems with high productivity as well as intensive land use for diverse agrolocational experiments under Agro-climatic situations could be Indian mustard in Kashmir valley; rice-wheat sorghum F in Jammu region; groundnut-wheat in Sriganganagar area of Rajasthan; cotton Gossypium sp.Crops and Cropping system adopted in India Part - 1 (Hindi/English) Agricultural Field Officer
Under rainfed, salt-affected, marginal lands and other problem soils, where adoption of intensive cropping systems is not possible, various alternative cropping systems such as inter or mixed cropping and alley cropping systems were suggested. Intercropping of legumes in the crops grown with wider inter-low spacing was found an assured way of enhancing LUE and production stability under rainfed and dryland farming.
For instance, pigeonpea inter cropped with sorghum and Lcuceaena with pearl millet appeared attracted alternatives to sole cropping. Extensive studies carried out under Cropping Systems Research Project also resulted in identification of several land-use efficient and profitable intercropping systems in different regions. The main crop to intercrop low ratio varies with kind of crops and their cultivars. It was generally observed that maximum benefit from an intercropping system was obtained when both the compound crops were fertilized at recommended rates besides following an appropriate planting pattern.
फसल इसकी किस्में तथा फसल पैटर्न की जानकारी | Crops Varieties And Cropping Pattern In Hindi
Growing of crops with legume fodder tree is known as alley cropping. The system is being recommended to meet food, fodder and fuel needs besides improving soil of Modipuram, observed that alley cropping of upland rice-wheat sequence with Subabual Leucaena leucocephala Lam. The system was identified as a potential alternate cropping system for best utilization of such lands. Irrigation water is a costly and scarce resource and its availability for agriculture is expected to further go down to increased demand for domestic and industrial uses improving water-use efficiency, thus, becomes of paramount importance of optimizing the benefits of irrigation.
The water-use efficiency WUE is the marketable yield of crop per unit of water used consumptive use. Though water-use efficiency can also be increased by decreasing and deep percolation.Farming Systems in India are strategically utilized, according to the locations where they are most suitable. The farming systems that significantly contribute to the agriculture of India are subsistence farmingorganic farmingindustrial farming.
India is very dependent on its monsoon cycle for large crop yields. India's agriculture has an extensive background which goes back to at least 9 thousand years. In India, Agriculture was established throughout most of the subcontinent by — BP. During the 5th millennium BP, in the alluvial plains of the Indus River in Pakistanthe old cities of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa experienced an apparent establishment of an organized farming urban culture.
That society, known as the Harappan or Indus civilizationflourished until shortly after BP; it was much more comprehensive than those of Egypt or Babylonia and appeared earlier than analogous societies in northern China. Currently, the country holds the second position in agricultural production in the world.
Despite the steady decline in agriculture's contribution to the country's GDP, agriculture is the biggest industry in the country and plays a key role in the socio-economic growth of the country.
India is the second-largest producer of wheat, rice, cotton, sugarcanesilk, groundnutsand dozens more. It is also the second biggest harvester of vegetables and fruit, representing 8. The major fruits produced by India are mangoespapayassapotaand bananas.Owasp zap vs burp
India also has the biggest number of livestock in the world, holding million. Inthe country housed the second largest number of cattle in the world with million. Each region in India has a specific soil and climate that is only suitable for certain types of farming.Rcm piano books pdf
There are three different types of crops that are cultivated throughout India. Each type is grown in a different season depending on their compatibility with certain weather. Kharif crops are grown at the start of the monsoon until the beginning of the winter, relatively from June to November.
Examples of such crops are rice, corn, millet, groundnut, moong, and urad.
Useful Notes on Cropping System in India (1185 Words)
Rabi crops are winter crops that are sown in October -November months and harvested in February - March. Its typical examples are wheat, boro paddy, jowar, nuts, etc.
The third type is Zaid crops which are summer crops. It is sown in February - March and harvested in May - June. Its examples are aush paddy, vegetables, jute, etc.Bihar, with its bountiful natural resources of fertile soil, abundant water, varied climate and rich cultural and historical heritage is one of the most fascinating states of India.
The farmers are intelligent and hard working. Therefore agriculture has been described as the core competence of Bihar by the Hon'ble President of India. Bihar's productive contribution in food grain, fruit, vegetables, spices and flowers can increase manifold with improved methods and system management.
Agro-Climate Condition. Bihar with a geographical area of about Based on soil characterization, rainfall, temperature and terrain, four main agro-climatic zones in Bihar have been identified. Zone I is situated in the north western part of the state whereas zone II is located in the north eastern part.
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Potential wise all three agro climatic zones have vast untapped potential for increasing the productivity of food grain crops. Across the state soil texture is varies from sandy loam to heavy clay. However the majority type belongs to loam category which is good for crop cultivation. The natural precipitation varies from to mm. Most of the precipitation is received during the month of July to September. Soil PH varies from 6.Offerte tutto per i capelli
There are three crop seasons- Kharif, Rabi and Zaid. Rice, wheat and pulses are grown in all the districts however the choice of the crop and crop rotation varies across the agro climatic zone.
Being located between 25 to 27 degree North latitude the climate of Bihar is of mostly sub-tropical.
Nevertheless region close to Tropic of Cancer experiences tropical climate during summer. Like all the Indian states Bihar also reels under hot summer season during months of March to May. Average temperature is degree Celsius throughout the summer months. April and June are the hottest months of the year. December to January is the winter season in Bihar because of its location is Northern hemisphere.The Farmers chose the crops for the cultivation on the basis of the factors like Physical, Social and Economic.
Sometimes they cultivate a number of crops at their farms and rotate a particular crop combination over a period. But it is noteworthy that the best farming practices always followed by certain cropping patterns as well as cropping system for raising their productivity and also for maintaining the fertility of soil. Cropping pattern is a dynamic concept because it changes over space and time.
It can be defined as the proportion of area under various crops at a point of time. In other words, it is a yearly sequence and spatial arrangement of sowing and fallow on a given area. In India, the cropping pattern determined by rainfall, climate, temperature, soil type and technology. The cropping patterns in India can be presented by taking the major crops into consideration as the base crop and all other possible alternative crops.
It is very important to identify crops and their showing agro-climatic condition so that they can be categorized. For example, wheat, barley and oats, are taken as one category. Soil Type: They are less sensitive to soil deficiencies.
They can be grown in inferior alluvial or loamy soil. However, it also grows well in alluvial soils of the Sutluj-Ganga plain and red and laterite soils of the peninsular region. Soil Type: Well drained light sandy loams, red, yellow and black soils are well suited for its cultivation. What are the factors responsible for the formation of Soil? How Organic Farming helps in Carbon Sequestration? The Indian agriculture is decided by the soil types and climatic parameters which determine overall agro-ecological setting for nourishment and appropriateness of a crop or set of crops for cultivation.
There are three distinct crop seasons in India, namely Kharif, Rabi and Zaid. The Kharif season started with Southwest Monsoon under which the cultivation of tropical crops such as rice, cotton, jute, jowar, bajra and tur are cultivated. Zaid is a short duration summer cropping season beginning after harvesting of Rabi crops. There are four cropping systems in India which is discussed below:. Winter Cropping Systems: In this system, wheat, barley and oats, sorghum and chickpea are grown.
Plantation and other commercial crops: Sugarcane, Tobacco, Potato, Jute, Tea, Coffee, Coconut, Rubber, Spices and condiments are important crops are grown in this system. Mixed Cropping : In this system, pulses and some oilseeds are grown with maize, sorghum and pearl millet. Do you know the reason of daily variation of temperature. Types of Cropping System in India.
There are three types of cropping system followed in India which is below:.
9 Main Types of Farming Systems Practices in India – Essay
Mono-Cropping or Monoculture: In this system, only one crop is grown on farm land year after year.Based primarily on nature of land, climatic characteristics and available irrigational facilities, the farmers in India practise different types of farming. Majority of farmers in the country practise subsistence farming.
It is characterised by small and scattered land holdings and use of primitive tools. As the farmers are poor, they do not use fertilisers and high yielding variety of seeds in their fields to the extent they should do. Facilities like electricity and irrigation are generally not available to them.
These result into low productivity. Most of the food production is consumed by the farmers and their families. Where facilities like irrigation and electricity are available, farming has improved. Important cash crops like sugarcane, oilseeds, cotton and jute are grown. The subsistence agriculture has given way to commercial agriculture to some extent. Dry land farming is practised in areas where the rainfall is low and irrigation facilities are inadequate.
Here, emphasis is laid on conservation of moisture, and on crops like jowar, bajra and pulses, which need less water. Wetland farming is practised in high rainfall and irrigated areas. Rice, sugarcane and vegetables are important crops in these areas.Lumia ffu flash tool
In dry farming, only one crop is grown while in wet farming, at least two crops are raised in a year-one in the kharif and another in the Rabi seasons. In this type of agriculture, first of all a piece of forest land is cleared by felling trees and burning of trunks and branches.
After the land is cleared, crops are grown for two to three years and then the land is abandoned as the fertility of the soil decreases. The farmers then move to new areas and the process is repeated. Dry paddy, maize, millets and vegetables are the crops commonly grown in this type of farming. The per hectare yield is low.
This practice is known by different name in different regions of India like Jhum in Assam, Ponam in Kerala, Podu in Andhra Pradesh and Odisha and bewar masha penda and bera in various parts of Madhya Pradesh. As far as possible governments have tried to discouraged is practice of cultivation by tribals due to wasteful nature such as soil erosion caused by it, when soil erosion caused by it, when soils are not under cultivation.
Plantation farming is bush or tree farming. It was introduced by the British in the nineteenth century. It is a single crop farming of rubber, tea, coffee, cocoa, spices, coconut and fruit crops like apples, grapes, oranges, etc. It is capital intensive and demands good managerial ability, technical know-how, sophisticated machinery, fertilisers, irrigation, and transport facilities. Some of the plantations like tea, coffee and rubber have a processing factory within the farm itself or close to it.
This type of agriculture has developed in hilly areas of north-eastern India, sub-Himalayan West Bengal and in Nilgiri, Anamalai and Cardamom hills in peninsular India.
In areas where irrigation has been possible, the farmers use fertilisers and pesticides on large scale. They have also brought their land under high yielding variety of seeds. They have mechanised agriculture by introducing machines in various processes of farming. These have led intensive farming where the yield per unit area is high. In some areas, this has led to the development of dairy farming. This practice is followed in areas where irrigation facilities are lacking.
Crops cultivated in these areas can withstand dry conditions. The crops grown generally with the help of irrigation are also grown under dry farming. In such circumstances the per hectare yields are generally lower. Most of the area under dry cultivation entertain only one crop during the year. This is practiced in drier parts of Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Madhya Pradesh etc.
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